Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”).
The consolidated financial statements for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were prepared on the going concern basis of accounting, which contemplates realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business and were prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“US GAAP”) and include the assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses of the Company’s subsidiaries.
Principles of Consolidation
We consolidate all wholly-owned subsidiaries, controlled joint ventures and variable interest entities where the Company has determined it is the primary beneficiary. All material intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Our wholly-owned subsidiaries include: Viking Rock Holding, AS (100%), Viking Rock, AS (100% owned), Cherokee Rock, Inc. (100% owned), EcoStim, Inc. (100% owned), and Eco-Stim Energy Solutions Argentina, SA (100% owned).
Under Accounting Standards Update 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements-Going Concern, the Company is required to evaluate whether there is a substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern each reporting period, including interim periods. In evaluating the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern, management has considered conditions and events that could raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for 12 months following the date the Company’s financial statements are issued (May 10, 2019), including the Company’s current financial condition and liquidity sources, including current cash balances, forecasted cash flows, the Company’s obligations due before May 10, 2019, including the Company’s obligations described in Note 6 – Commitments and Contingencies, and the other conditions and events described below.
The Company has incurred substantial net losses and losses from operations since inception. As of December 31, 2018, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of approximately $3.7 million and working capital deficit of approximately $5.5 million. The Company does not have access to a working capital facility and may not have access to other sources of external capital on reasonable terms or at all. In September 2018, the Company elected to suspend its U.S. well stimulation operations and significantly reduce its U.S. workforce in alignment with potential near-term opportunities. As a result, beginning in the fourth quarter of 2018, the Company was only conducting pump down operations in the U.S. and the Company did not generate any material revenue from its U.S. operations in the fourth quarter of 2018, and as of May 10, 2019, has not generated any material revenue from its U.S. operations. In addition, the Company does not expect that its U.S. operations will generate any material revenue in future periods. In Argentina, the Company had been operating under a transition agreement with its primary customer since May 2018. Following the third quarter of 2018, the Company has not provided any services to its primary customer in Argentina under the transition agreement or otherwise, and the Company did not generate any significant revenue from its Argentina operations during the fourth quarter of 2018.
As of December 31, 2018, the outstanding aggregate principal amount of the Company’s outstanding Negotiable Demand Promissory Note was approximately $7.9 million. If the Company’s obligations under the Negotiable Demand Promissory Note are accelerated pursuant to its terms, there can be no assurance that the Company will have sufficient funds to repay such obligations or the Company’s other obligations.
Management’s plans to alleviate substantial doubt include: (i) pursuing the sale of a substantial majority of the equipment, inventory and other operating assets relating to the Company’s U.S. operations; (ii) using the proceeds from asset sales to reduce the Company’s outstanding liabilities and improve its liquidity; (iii) pursuing strategic alternatives, including alternatives for the Company’s operations in Argentina which could include selling, reducing the scale of, or shutting down the Company’s operations in Argentina; (iv) significantly reducing the Company’s U.S. workforce in alignment with potential near-term opportunities, which actions have been substantially implemented; (v) pursuing new work for the Company’s operations in Argentina; and (vi) taking other steps to reduce costs and liabilities. However, there can be no assurance as to the ultimate consummation, timing or amount of proceeds generated from any such asset sales or other actions. Based on the uncertainty of achieving these items and the significance of the factors described above, there is substantial doubt as to the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern for a period of 12 months following May 10, 2019.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates are used in, but are not limited to, determining the following: allowance for doubtful accounts, recoverability of long-lived assets and intangibles, useful lives used in depreciation and amortization, income taxes and stock-based compensation. The accounting estimates used in the preparation of the consolidated financial statements may change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired, as additional information is obtained and as the Company’s operating environment changes.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. The Company maintains deposits in several financial institutions in both Argentina and the U.S. Funds held in the U.S. may at times exceed amounts covered by insurance provided by the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). The Company has not experienced any losses related to amounts in excess of FDIC limits.
The Company adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” which outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers, effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method. As there was no material impact on the Company’s current revenue recognition processes, no retrospective adjustments were necessary.
Revenue is earned at a point in time when services are rendered, which is generally on a per stage basis for our well stimulation business or fixed daily rate for the Company’s coiled tubing operations. All revenue is recognized when a contract with a customer exists, the performance obligations under the contract have been satisfied, the amount to which the Company has the right to invoice has been determined and collectability of amounts subject to invoice is probable. The Company does not incur contract acquisition and origination costs. Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are accounted for on a net basis and, therefore, are excluded from revenues in the consolidated statements of operations and net cash provided by operating activities in the consolidated statements of cash flows.
The Company has elected the practical expedient to recognize revenue based upon the transactional value it has the right to invoice upon completion of each performance obligation per the contract terms, as the Company believes its right to consideration corresponds directly with the value transferred to the customer, and this expedient does not lend itself to the application of significant judgment. As a result of electing these practical expedients, there was no material impact on the Company’s current revenue recognition processes and no retrospective adjustments were necessary.
The Company’s obligations for refunds as well as the warranties and related obligations stated in its contracts with its customers are standard to the industry and are related to the correction of any defectiveness in the execution of its performance obligations.
The Company expenses sales costs and any commissions when incurred as the amortization period would have been one year or less.
Well Stimulation Revenue
The Company has historically provided well stimulation services based on contractual arrangements, such as term contracts and pricing agreements, or on a spot market basis. Revenue is recognized upon completion of stimulation stages and includes the components of the services and the chemicals and proppants consumed while performing the well stimulation services. For our U.S. business, our performance obligations are defined as stages. In the case of our Argentina business, our performance obligations have been defined as stages plus specific defined services noted within the contract. For both businesses, customers are invoiced upon the completion of each job, which consist of multiple stimulation stages.
Under term pricing agreement arrangements, customers commit to targeted utilization levels at agreed-upon pricing, but without termination penalties or obligations to pay for services not used by the customer. In addition, the agreed-upon pricing is typically subject to periodic review.
Spot market basis arrangements are based on agreed-upon spot market rates.
Coiled Tubing Revenue
For our coiled tubing services, performance obligations are satisfied within a day, in line with day rates established by the contract. Jobs for these services are typically short term in nature, lasting anywhere from a few hours to a few days. Revenue is recognized upon completion of each job based upon a completed field ticket. The Company charges the customer for mobilization, services performed, personnel on the job, equipment used on the job, and miscellaneous consumables at agreed-upon spot market rates.
Disaggregation of Revenue
Revenue activities from continuing operations during twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively were as follows:
See also Item 8. Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, Note 16: Segment Reporting
In line with industry practice, the Company bills its customers for its services in arrears, typically when the stage or well is completed or at month-end. The majority of the Company’s jobs are completed in less than 14 days. Furthermore, it is currently not standard practice for the Company to execute contracts with prepayment features. As such, the Company’s contract liabilities with its customers are immaterial to its unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, other assets, accounts payable, accrued expenses, capital lease obligations and notes payable. The recorded values of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, other assets, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximate their fair values based on their short-term nature. The carrying value of capital lease obligations and notes payable approximate their fair value, and the interest rates approximate market rates.
Functional and Reporting Currency
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Company’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (the “functional currency”). The functional currency for the Norwegian and Argentine subsidiaries is the U.S. Dollar. The consolidated financial statements are presented in U.S. Dollars, which is the Company’s reporting currency.
Net Loss per Common Share
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the weighted average shares outstanding excluded shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of certain stock options and shares of common stock issuable upon the conversion of outstanding shares of Series A Preferred totaling 3,303,721 and 401,393, respectively, from the calculation of diluted earnings per share because these shares would be anti-dilutive. As of June 20, 2017, the Company’s convertible debt was converted into common stock at $1.40 per share and therefore the Company no longer has any convertible debt outstanding. Anti-dilutive warrants of 25,000 for each of the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were also excluded from the weighted average share outstanding calculation.
Accounts receivable are stated at amounts management expects to collect from outstanding balances both billed and unbilled (unbilled accounts receivable represents amounts recognized as revenue for which invoices have not yet been sent to clients). Management provides for probable uncollectible amounts through a charge to earnings and a credit to a valuation allowance based on its assessment of the current status of individual accounts. The Company evaluated all accounts receivable and determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts was necessary at December 31, 2018, but that no allowance was needed at December 31, 2017. The allowance for doubtful accounts was deemed necessary at December 31, 2018 due to the aging of our Argentina unbilled accounts receivable of $2.1 million being greater than 120 days placing into question our ability to collect on these amounts.
Prepaids and Other Assets
Prepaid expenses and other assets are primarily comprised of U.S. prepaid vehicle registration fees.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, Plant and Equipment (“PPE”) is stated at historical cost less depreciation. Historical cost includes expenditures that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the items.
Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets for financial reporting purposes. Expenditures for major renewals and betterments that extend the useful lives are capitalized. Expenditures for normal maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. The cost of assets sold or abandoned, and the related accumulated depreciation are eliminated from the accounts and any gains or losses are reflected in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations for the respective period.
The estimated useful lives of our major classes of PPE are as follows:
In September 2018, we sold certain of our non-core U.S. equipment for $2.9 million, recognizing a gain of $0.3 million. The proceeds were used to fund the general operations of the business. During the fourth quarter of 2018, we sold approximately $5.7 million of plant and equipment and recognized a gain of approximately $0.9 million.
The Company leased certain equipment under lease agreements. The Company evaluates each lease to determine its appropriate classification as an operating or capital lease for financial reporting purposes. Any lease that does not meet the criteria for a capital lease is accounted for as an operating lease. The assets and liabilities under capital leases are recorded at the lower of the present value of the minimum lease payments or the fair market value of the related assets. Assets under capital leases are amortized using the straight-line method over the lease term. Amortization of assets under capital leases is included in depreciation expense.
The Company accounts for its stock options, warrants, and restricted stock grants under the fair value recognition provisions of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 718. The Company currently uses the straight-line amortization method for recognizing stock option and restricted stock compensation costs. The measurement and recognition of compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to our employees, directors or outside service providers are based on the estimated fair value of the awards on the grant dates. The grant date fair value is estimated using either an option-pricing model which is consistent with the terms of the award or a market observed price, if such a price exists. Such cost is recognized over the period during which an employee, director or outside service provider is required to provide service in exchange for the award, i.e., “the requisite service period” (which is usually the vesting period). The Company also estimates the number of instruments that will ultimately be earned, rather than accounting for forfeitures as they occur. For the years December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company recorded $2,977,423 and $1,754,706, respectively, of stock-based compensation, which is included in cost of services, and selling, general and administrative expense, in the statement of operations. Total unamortized stock-based compensation expense at December 31, 2018 was $1,432,391 compared to $3,247,370 at December 31, 2017.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company reviews its long-lived assets for impairment when changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. ASC Topic 360 requires the Company to review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset or group of assets may not be recoverable. The impairment review includes a comparison of future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or group of assets with their associated carrying value. If the carrying value of the asset or group of assets exceeds expected cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges), an impairment loss is recognized to the extent that the carrying value exceeds the fair value. If estimated future cash flows are not achieved with respect to long-lived assets, additional write-downs may be required.
During 2017, the Company evaluated its long-lived assets for impairment and determined no impairment was necessary.
During the second quarter of 2018, the Company concluded it had a triggering event requiring assessment of impairment for certain of its long-lived assets in conjunction with our decision to move from providing services operating two well stimulation fleets in the U.S. to providing a single well stimulation fleet in the U.S. providing pumping services to a single customer. As a result, crew and staff reductions were taken. Further, the Company reviewed the long-lived assets for impairment and recorded a $3.7 million impairment expense. The full amount is related to our U.S. segment. The impairment was measured using the market approach utilizing an appraisal to determine fair value of the impaired assets.
During the third quarter of 2018, the Company concluded it had a triggering event requiring assessment of impairment for certain of its long-lived assets in conjunction with our decision to pursue the sale of a substantial majority of our U.S. equipment and suspension of its U.S. well stimulation operations. The Company reviewed the long-lived assets for impairment and recorded a $19.7 million impairment expense. The full amount is related to our U.S. segment. The impairment was measured using the market approach utilizing current bid values being obtained for the assets.
During the fourth quarter of 2018, the Company concluded it had a triggering event requiring assessment of impairment for certain of its long-lived assets in conjunction with our decision to pursue the sale of a substantial majority of our U.S. equipment and suspension of our U.S. well stimulation operations, as well as our decision in Argentina to seek opportunities for sale of our assets or business. The Company recorded a loss on impairment during the fourth quarter of 2018 of $5.5 million and $4.4 million (included in discontinued operations) in our U.S. and Argentina segments, respectively. The impairments were measured using the market approach utilizing current net realizable values received in the sale of the assets subsequent to December 31, 2018.
Major Customers and Concentration of Credit Risk
The majority of the Company’s business from inception through the first quarter of 2017 was conducted with major and independent oil and natural gas companies in Argentina. For the twelve months ending December 31, 2018, 78% or $40.7 million and 22% or $11.4 million of our revenue is from the U.S. and Argentina, respectively. The Company evaluates the financial strength of its customers and provides allowances for probable credit losses when deemed necessary. The Company has historically derived a large amount of revenue from a small number of national and independent oil and natural gas companies. At December 31, 2018, the Company had a concentration of receivables with two customers.
For the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, two major customers accounted for approximately 97% and 74% of our services revenue, respectively. Our accounts receivable at December 31, 2018 and 2017 were concentrated with two major customers representing 88% and 78%, respectively. The Company did not generate any material revenue from these customers following the third quarter of 2018.
Deferred income taxes are determined using the asset and liability method in accordance with ASC Topic 740. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred income taxes are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in years in which such temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred income taxes is recognized in the consolidated statement of operations of the period that includes the enactment date. In addition, a valuation allowance is established to reduce any deferred tax asset for which it is determined that it is more likely than not that some portion of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.
The Company is subject to U.S. federal and foreign income taxes along with state income and franchise taxes in Texas and Oklahoma. When tax returns are filed, it is highly certain that some positions taken would be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, while others are subject to uncertainty about the merits of the position taken or the amount of the position that would be ultimately sustained. The benefit of a tax position is recognized in the financial statements in the period during which, based on all available evidence, management believes it is more likely than not that the position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of appeals or litigation processes, if any. Tax positions taken are not offset or aggregated with other positions. Tax positions that meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold are measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that is more than 50% likely of being realized upon settlement with the applicable taxing authority. The portion of the benefits associated with tax positions taken that exceeds the amount measured as described above is reflected as a liability for unrecognized tax benefits in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets along with any associated interest and penalties that would be payable to the taxing authorities upon examination.
Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Guidance
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, which clarifies when modification accounting should be applied for changes to terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. This ASU is applied prospectively and is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those years, with early adoption permitted. We adopted ASU 2017-09 in the first quarter of 2018, with such adoption having no material impact on the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which replaced most existing revenue recognition guidance in U.S. GAAP when it became effective. This new standard requires us to recognize the amount of revenue to which we expect to be entitled for the transfer of promised goods or services to customers. We adopted the new standard using the modified retrospective application in the first quarter of 2018, with such adoption having no impact on the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements and no cumulative effect adjustment was recognized.
Accounting Guidance Issued But Not Adopted as of December 31, 2018
On February 25, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02 Leases (Topic 842), which requires an entity to recognize assets and liabilities arising from a lease for both financing and operating leases. ASU 2016-02 will also require new qualitative and quantitative disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the effect this standard will have on its future condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures but does not expect adoption of have a material impact.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef